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Get your thyroid hormones optimized

We specialize in thyroid optimization with T4/T3 combinations and straight T3 and treat all types of hypothyroidism, including standard (primary), secondary (pituitary dysfunction), tertiary (hypothalamic), which result in normal or low TSH with sub-optimal T4 and T3 levels, low T3 syndromes, poor conversion of T4 to T3, high reverse T3 (Wilson's syndrome), thyroid receptor resistance syndromes, which results in hypothyroidism with normal thyroid blood levels, difficult thyroid cases. Patients fly in from all over the United States and the world for treatment of thyroid disorders.

Have You Been Told Your Thyroid is Normal?

New, better test is now available through our office to accurately determine your thyroid hormone levels.

Common complaint: I've been told my thyroid is normal, but I still suffer with symptoms of a low thyroid...

  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty Losing Weight
  • Depression
  • Body Aches
  • Low Libido
  • Cold all the Time
  • Water Retention
  • Dry Skin, Eczema
  • No Relief from my Treatment for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia PMS, or Menopause
  • Diffuse Hair Loss or dry hair
  • Cold extremities
  • Constipation
  • Poor memory
  • Poor concentration
  • Anxiety
  • Weakness
  • Pale skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Palpitations
  • PMS
  • Heavy menstrual flow
  • Muscle or joint aches
  • Poor motivation

Fatigued, depressed, difficulty losing weight..?
It may be due to your hormones
(See also Leptin/Weight Loss page).

Since the endocrine system is devised of glands that produce and send hormones to all areas of our body to regulate the essential functions of our body like temperature, reproduction, growth, immunity, and aging, it stands to reason that this should be the hub of vitality, longevity and well being. Many individuals are getting remarkable results from having their hormones optimized. Specialized hormonal testing can be utilized to bring the hormones into optimal ranges. Many people are finding that common problems of fatigue, depression and difficulty losing weight can be completely reversed by physicians that specialize in hormone optimization and age management medicine. Individuals often suffer for years being told that their thyroid, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone and adrenals are fine, but these doctors are finding that these levels are actually low and need to be supplemented, often with remarkable results. Standard blood tests only pick up the sickest 2.5% of the population.

Many of the common complaints that rarely get addressed by standard medicine can be remedied by hormone optimization. These include complaints such as, I can’t lose weight like I use to…I don’t get as much results from working out as I used to…What happened to that feeling of well-being…I feel depressed…My body aches… My skin is dry and rough…My joints hurt…I am aging faster than I would like…I sure get tired easily…I feel cold all the time…My libido is shot…My hair is thinning…I don’t feel right…My nails break so easily…I get sick easily…I get frequent headaches… My muscles are sore…I seem to retain water…I’m always constipated…I don’t feel like I used to…I have PMS…I have lost my motivation…I am being treated for depression but I’m still depressed… I’m not getting much relief from my treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia…I’m being treated for hypothyroidism, but I’m still tired.

Two of the biggest problems are low thyroid for women and low testosterone for men. So many women who are told over and over that their thyroid levels are fine, actually have severely low thyroids levels that are not picked up by the standard TSH and T4 testing, which is the only testing done about 90% of the time. TSH is secreted by the pituitary in the brain, telling the thyroid to secrete T4, which is not the active thyroid hormone. T4 must then be converted in the body to the active thyroid hormone T3. When T4 and T3 levels drop, the TSH should increase indicating hypothyroidism. This is the standard way to diagnose hypothyroidism. There are, however, many things that result in hypothyroidism but are not diagnosed using the standard TSH and T4 testing. This method only reveals a few of the very sickest patients, leaving the majority of patients undiagnosed. Many people, especially women, do not adequately convert T4 to the active T3, resulting in low levels of active thyroid hormone and symptoms of low thyroid with a normal TSH. Also, there is another problem in that T4 cannot only be converted to T3, but it can also be converted to reverse T3, which is inactive and blocks the thyroid receptor. Very few practicing physicians, including endocrinologist, are aware this because it was not taught in medical school, but it contributes to low tissue levels of thyroid in a significant percentage of patients with symptoms. Again, this is missed by standard testing. This is an evolutionary enzyme that increases the T4 to reverse T3 in times of stress. This worked well for our ancestors because it improved survival in times of famine and stress by decreasing the metabolic rate (metabolism). But in our modern society, reverse T3 works against us causing fatigue, difficulty losing weight and all the other symptoms of hypothyroidism. Reverse T3 can also be increased with dieting (often responsible for the quick weight gain after losing weight) as well as with physical and emotional stress. Low thyroid not only results in undesirable symptoms, but it also increases the risk of heart disease and cancer. Consequently, bringing the thyroid to optimal levels not only makes a person feel better, but is also results in significant health benefits, as well. So many people have been going from doctor to doctor thinking their thyroid is low, only to be told it is fine over and over. When more extensive testing is done so many individuals are relieved to be shown that their thyroid is truly low or sub-optimal and that they can expect to be feeling better soon.

A recent study in the medical journal Archives of Internal Medicine found that women with low normal thyroid (sub-clinical hypothyroidism) are 70% more likely to have arthrosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and over twice as likely (200% increase) to suffer a heart attack. This low normal thyroid that is going untreated is not only resulting in millions of women unnecessarily feeling fatigued, depressed and being unable to loss weight, along with all the other symptoms of low thyroid, but it is also resulting in heart attacks and deaths that could easily be prevented.  


Reverse T3 is the best measurement of tissue thyroid levels

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2005; 90(12):6403–6409

Thyroid Hormone Concentrations, Disease, Physical Function and Mortality in Elderly Men
Annewieke W. van den Beld, Theo J. Visser, Richard A. Feelders, Diederick E. Grobbee, and Steven W. J. Lamberts Department of Internal

This study of 403 men investigated the association between TSH, T4, free T4, T3, TBG and reverse T3 (rT3) and parameters of physical functioning. This study demonstrates that TSH and/or T4 levels are poor indicators of tissue thyroid levels and thus, in a large percentage of patients, cannot be used to determine whether a person is euthyroid (normal thyroid levels) at the tissue level. In fact, T4 levels had a negative correlation with tissue thyroid levels (higher T4 levels were associ­ated with decreased peripheral conversion of T4, low T3 levels and high rT3). This study demonstrates that rT3 inversely correlates with physical performance scores and that the T3/rT3 ratio is currently the best indicator of tissue levels of thyroid.


This study showed that increased T4 and RT3 levels and decreased T3 levels are associated with hypothyroidism at the tissue level with diminished physicial func­tioning and the presence of a catabolic state (breakdown of the body). This study adds to the mounting evidence that giving T4 preparations such as Synthroid and Levoxyl are inadequate for restoring tissue euthyroidism and that a normal TSH cannot be relied upon as as an indication of euthyroidism, as it has a very low sensitivity and specificity for hypothyroidism. This poor sensitivity and specificity is further decreased with the presence of one or more systemic illnesses, including diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, systemic inflammation, asthma, CFS, fibro­myalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, insulin resistance, obesity, chronic stress and almost any other systemic illness.


Low T3 syndrome, with low T3 and high reverse T3, is almost always missed when using standard thyroid function tests, as the T3 level is often in the low normal range and reverse T3 is the high normal range, again making the T3/rT3 ratio the most useful marker for tissue hypothyroidism and as a marker of diminished cel­lular functioning. The authors of this study conclude, “Subjects with low T3 and high reverse T3 had the lowest PPS [PPS is a scoring system that takes into account normal activities of daily living and is a measure of physical and mental function­ing]…Furthermore, subjects with high reverse T3 concentrations had worse physical performance scores and lower grip strength. These high rT3 levels were accompanied by high FT4 levels (within the normal range)…These changes in thyroid hormone concentrations may be explained by a decrease in peripheral thyroid hormone me­tabolism… Increasing rT3 levels could then represent a catabolic state, eventually proceeding an overt low T3 syndrome.”


This study demonstrates that TSH and T4 levels are poor measures of tissue thyroid levels, TSH and T4 levels should not be relied upon to determine the tissue thyroid levels and that the best estimate of the tissue thyroid effect is rT3 and the T3/rT3 ratio.

Been told your thyroid is normal despite having symptoms of low thyroid?

The British Medical Journal 326:311-2

Serum TSH in assessment of severity of tissue hypothyroidism in patients with overt primary thyroid failure: cross sectional survey

Meier C, Trittibach P, Guglielmetti M, Staub JJ, Muller B.

In 49 patients with primary hypothyroidism, the authors investigated the correlation of TSH, free T4 and T3 with the level of tissue hypothyroidism (thyroid effect in the body) and found a very poor correlation of TSH with tissue levels of thyroid. They found there was a better correlation with free T4 and T3.

This study demonstrates that standard thyroid tests do not correlate with tissue levels of thyroid and serves as more evidence that standard thyroid tests cannot be relied upon to correctly determine the thyroid status of an individual. Most physicians and endocrinologists incorrectly feel the TSH is the best indicator of the thyroid status of an individual and do not understand that the TSH is a poor indicator of tissue thyroid levels in many people. They fail to understand that a person may suffer from significantly low thyroid despite having a normal TSH, free T3 and free T4. The authors discuss the need for doctors to look at signs and symptoms to determine optimal levels of thyroid replacement and not rely on the TSH, which is rarely done by physicians and endocrinologists.


The authors summarize, “TSH is a poor measure for estimating the clinical and metabolic severity of primary overt thyroid failure… In contrast to the good correlations with both circulating thyroid hormones, we found no correlation or only weak correlations with serum TSH… We found no correlations between the different parameters of target tissues and serum TSH…Therefore, the biological effects of thyroid hormones at the peripheral tissues—and not TSH concentrations—reflect the clinical severity of hypothyroidism.  A judicious initiation of thyroxine treatment should be guided by clinical and metabolic presentation and thyroid hormone concentrations (free thyroxine) and not by serum TSH concentrations.”

Standard Thyroid Tests...

Standard thyroid tests lack accuracy to determine proper dose of thyroid replacement
The British Medical Journal 293:808-810

Are biochemical tests of thyroid function of any value in monitoring patients receiving thyroxine replacement?

Fraser WD, Biggart EM, OReilly DJ, Gray HW, McKillop JH

Most physicians, including endocrinologists, rely on standard thyroid tests to determine their patients’ “proper” dose of thyroid replacement. The evaluation of a patient’s signs and symptoms to determine the proper dose has been reduced to the point of being unimportant to most physicians. This study demonstrates that it is improper to rely on standard thyroid tests to determine a patient’s optimal dose of thyroid replacement and doing so will result in inadequate replacement for the majority of patients. Thus, it is of no surprise that a large percentage of patients continue to suffer with symptoms of hypothyroidism despite being on so-call “proper” doses of thyroid, which is compounded by the fact that T4 only preparations are most often used.


This prospective study of 148 hypothyroid patients investigated the role of monitoring thyroid replacement with standard thyroid tests and the accuracy of such tests to determine the proper dose of thyroid replacement. The authors measured TSH, free T4, free T3, total T4 and total T3 and used a battery of clinical parameters and an exam by clinicians experienced in thyroid disease. This study found that the TSH is a poor measure for estimating the metabolic severity of primary thyroid failure and/or proper thyroid dose.


The authors conclude, “Measurements of serum concentrations of total thyroxine, free thyroxine and TSH, made with sensitive immunoradiometric assay, did not, except in patients with gross abnormalities, distinguish euthyroid [normal thyroid] patients from those who were receiving inadequate or excessive replacement. These measurements are therefore of little, if any, value in monitoring patients receiving thyroxine replacement…The serum concentration of thyroid stimulation hormone is unsatisfactory as the thyrotrophs in the anterior pituitary are more sensitive to changes in the concentration of thyroxine in the circulation than other tissues…It is clear that serum thyroid hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations cannot be used with any degree of confidence to classify patients as receiving satisfactory, insufficient, or excessive amounts of thyroxine replacement…The poor diagnostic sensitivity and high false positive rates associated with such measurements render them virtually useless in clinical practice…Further adjustments to the dose should be made according to the patient's clinical response…Our findings emphasize the need for laboratories to make their users aware that the reference ranges for thyroxine, free thyroxin, and thyroid stimulation hormone concentrations in patients receiving thyroxine replacement are considerably different from the conventional ranges; they should also point out limitations of these ranges.”


Most physicians, including endocrinologists, feel that a suppressed TSH is an indication that the does of thyroid should be reduced (except with thyroid cancer). While a suppressed TSH may be an indication the patient is hyperthyroid, this study found that was the case only 20% of the time. In other words, doctors who make the assumption that a suppressed TSH means over-replacement and decrease the dose based on the suppressed TSH will be wrong 80% of the time because 80% of the time a suppressed TSH was shown not to be an indication that the patient was hyperthyroid or receiving too much thyroid replacement. Unfortunately, most physicians, including endocrinologists, lack of ability or confidence to clinically evaluate a patient’s thyroid status and lack of understanding of the limitations of standard thyroid function tests, which has resulted in the majority of hypothyroid patients receiving inadequate doses of thyroid replacement.

Tissue levels of T3 with T4 only preparations

Tissue and pituitary levels of T3 with T4 only preparations
Journal of Clinical Investigation 96:2828-2838

Replacement therapy for hypothyroidism with thyroxine alone does not ensure euthyroidism in all tissues…

Escobar-Morreale HF, Obregon MJ, Escobar del Rey F, Morreale de Escobar G


Only the combined treatment with thyroxine and triiodothryoidine ensures euthyroidism in all tissue…

Escobar-Morreale HF, Escobar del Rey F, Obregon MJ, Morreale de Escobar G


Levothyroxine (T4) only replacement with products such as Synthroid and Levoxyl are the most widely accepted forms of thyroid replacement. This is based on a widely held assumption that the body will convert what it needs to the biologically active form T3. Based on this assumption, most physicians and endocrinologists believe that the normalization of TSH with a T4 preparation demonstrates adequate tissue levels of thyroid. This assumption, however, had never been directly tested until these studies were published. The first study investigated whether or not giving T4 only preparations will provide adequate T3 levels in varying tissues. Plasma TSH, T4 and T3 levels and 10 different tissue levels of T4 and T3 were measured after the infusion of 12-13 days of thyroxine. The second study compared the plasma TSH, T4 and T3 levels and 13 different tissues levels of T4 and T3 when T4 or T4/T3 preparations were utilized.


These studies demonstrate that the normalization of plasma TSH and T4 levels with T4 only preparations provide adequate tissue T3 levels to only a few tissues including the pituitary (hence the normal TSH) but almost every other tissue will be deficient. They show that it is impossible to achieve normal tissue levels of T3 by giving T4 only preparations unless supra-physiological levels of T4 are given. The authors conclude, “The current replacement therapy of hypothyroidism should no longer be considered adequate…”


The second study found that a combination of T4/T3 is required to normalize tissue levels of T3. The study found that the pituitary was able to maintain normal levels of T3 despite the rest of the body being hypothyroid on T4 only preparations. Under normal conditions, it was shown that the pituitary will have 7 to 60 times the concentration of T3 of other tissues of the body and when thyroid levels drop, the pituitary was shown to have 40 to 650 times the concentration of T3 of other tissues. Thus, the pituitary is unique in its ability to concentrate T3 in the presence of diminished thyroid levels that is not present in other tissues. Consequently, the pituitary levels of T3 and the subsequent level of TSH is a poor measurement of tissue hypothyroidism as almost the entire body can be severely hypothyroid despite a normal TSH level.


These studies add to the large amount of studies that demonstrate that pituitary thyroid levels are not indicative of other tissues in the body and demonstrate why the TSH level is a poor indicator of a proper thyroid dose. They also demonstrate that it is impossible to achieve normal tissue thyroid levels with T4 preparations such as Synthroid and Levoxyl. It is no surprise that the majority of patients on T4 preparations will continue to suffer from symptoms of hypothyroidism despite being told their levels are “normal”. Patients on T4 only preparations should seek out a physician who is well-versed in the medical literature and understands the physiologic limitations and inadequacy of commonly used thyroid preparations.

Reduced Metabolic Rate with Dieting

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 44, 585-595

Adaptation of energy metabolism of overweight women to lowenergy intake, studied with whole-body calorimeters
Jo de Boer, AJ van Es, LC Roovers, JM van Raaij and JG Hautvast

In 14 overweight women, 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) was measured in a whole-body indirect calorimeter: before weight reduction (100% diet), after 1 weeks on a 4.2-MJ diet, after 8 weeks on 4.2-MJ diet and after weight reduction on 100% diet. Mean body weight declined from 93.3 +/- 7.4 (mean +/- SD) to 83.4 +/- 7.7 kg; 24-hour EE decreased from 10.52 +/- 0.83 MJ on the 100% diet to 9.58 +/- 0.75 MJ on the 4.2- MJ diet. After 8 weeks, 24-hour EE had decreased by 15% of the initial 24-hour EE to 8.92 +/- 0.65 MJ. After refeeding (1 week), it increased to 9.45 +/- 0.75 MJ. Calculated energy requirement before weight reduction was 10.62 +/- 0.88 MJ/day; after weight reduction, 9.39 +/- 0.79 MJ/day. The decrease was more than that predicted from the change in body weight and body composition.


This study demonstrates that there is a significantly reduced metabolic rate after dieting that does not return to normal even after a normal diet is resumed

Diet Induced Thyroid Suppression

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/jc.2005-0920

High circulating Thyrotropin levels in obese women arereduced after body weight loss induced by caloric restriction
Petra Kok, Ferdinand Roelfsema, Janneke G. Langendonk, Marijke Frölich, Jacobus Burggraaf, A. Edo Meinders and Hanno Pijl

Context: Previous clinical studies concerning the impact of body weight loss on single plasma TSH concentration measurements or the TSH response to TRH in obese humans have shown variable results.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss induced by caloric restriction on diurnal TSH concentrations and secretion in obese humans.

Design: This was a clinical, prospective, crossover study.

Setting: The study was conducted at the Clinical Research Center of Leiden University Medical Center.

Participants: Eleven obese premenopausal women (body mass index, 33.3 ± 0.7 kg/m2) were studied.

Intervention: The study intervention was weight loss (50% reduction overweight by caloric restriction).

Main Outcome Measure(s): Twenty-four-hour plasma TSH concentrations (10-min intervals) and the 24-h TSH secretion rate, calculated by a waveform-independent decon¬volution technique (Pulse), were determined.

Results: The 24-h TSH secretion rate was significantly higher in obese women than in normal weight controls, and weight loss was accompanied by diminished TSH release (be¬fore weight loss, 43.4 ± 6.4 mU/liter•24 h; after weight loss, 34.4 ± 5.9 mU/liter•24 h; P = 0.02). Circulating free T3 levels decreased after weight loss from 4.3 ± 0.19 to 3.8 ± 0.14 pmol/liter (P = 0.04). Differences in 24-h TSH release correlated positively with the decline of circulating leptin (r2 = 0.62; P < 0.01).

Conclusions: “Elevated TSH secretion in obese women is significantly reduced by diet-induced weight loss. Among various physiological cues, leptin may be involved in this phenomenon. The decreases in TSH and free T3 may blunt energy expenditure in re¬sponse to long-term calorie restriction, thereby frustrating weight loss attempts of obese individuals.”

This study demonstrates that there is a significant reduction in thyroid levels with dieting that is not detected.

Low Normal Thyroid Levels Cause Weight Gain

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 90(7):4019–4024

Small Differences in Thyroid Function May Be Important for Body Mass Index and the Occurrence of Obesity in the Population
Nils Knudsen, Peter Laurberg, Lone B. Rasmussen, Inge Bu¨ low, Hans Perrild, Lars Ovesen, and Torben Jørgensen

This study demonstrates that low normal thyroid levels are associated with an inability to lose weight and obesity.


Reverse T3 Suppresses T4 to T3 Conversion

Endocrinology 101(2):453-63

A study of extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine (T4)to 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine (T3) in vitro
Chopra IJ

Most endocrinologists believe that reverse T3 (rT3) is just and inactive metabolite with no physiologic effect, which is not the case, however. This study and subsequent others demonstrate that rT3 is a more potent inhibitor of T4 to T3 conversion than PTU (propylthio­uracil), which is a medication used to decrease thyroid function in hyperthyroidism. In fact, rT3 is 100 times more potent than PTU at reducing T4 to T3 conversion. Clearly, rT3 not just an inactive metabolite. The authors conclude, “Reverse t3 appeared to inhibit the conversion of t4 to T3 with a potency which is about 100 times more than PTU…

Brief Report

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism; 91(1):225–227

Thyrotropin Suppression by Metformin
Robert A. Vigersky, Amy Filmore-Nassar, and Allan R. Glass Endocrinology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307

This study noted that patients on metformin (Glucohage) had a subsequent suppression in TSH level without a change in serum thyroid levels, demonstrating that there is often associated a thyroid resistance in patients with insulin resistance that is partially improved with metformin. This study adds to the mounting evidence that due to a variety of factors, including tissue altered metabolism of thyroid and thyroid hormone resistance, standard thyroid function tests do not correlate with tissue effect of thyroid.

The Learning Channel

Dr. Holtorf discussed the controversies and inadequacies of standard thyroid testing on The Learning Channel airing in January, 2007. He demonstrated this fact with a case study patient brought to see Dr. Holtorf by The Learning Channel. This patient had extreme difficulty losing weight even after having gastric bypass surgery and suspected she had low thyroid despite having “normal” standard thyroid blood tests and being told by multiple specialists that her thyroid was fine. Dr. Holtorf clearly shows that she has abnormally low active tissue thyroid levels that were significantly lower than normal optimal levels and that her untreated low thyroid was likely a major contributor to her inability to lose weight.

Additional Studies

  1. Low normal thyroid levels result in a higher risk of heart disease than if you have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, if you smoke or even have diabetes. Individuals with low normal thyroid levels are 2.5 times more likely to suffer a heart attack. This is greater than if you have high cholesterol (2.4 times risk), high blood pressure (1.6 times risk), if you smoke (2 times risk) or have diabetes (2.4 times risk). Doctors and patients are well aware of these risk factors for heart disease but fail to correct the more important low normal thyroid levels. Many patients needlessly suffer heart attacks because their physician tells them their thyroid is fine because it is in the normal range instead of optimizing to more optimal levels.

    Risk Factor Age Adjusted Relative Risk
    Low normal thyroid
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Annals of Internal Med, 2000
  2. Many physicians have realized that patients can be profoundly hypothyroid and still have normal values of TSH and Free T4. In the British Medical Journal several physicians noted this by stating, “We wish to question present medical practice, which considers abnormal serum concentrations of free thyroxin and thyroid stimulation hormone-those outside the 95% reference interval-to indicate hypothyroidism but incorrectly considers “normal” free thyroxin and thyroid stimulation hormone concentrations to negate this diagnosis. It is unusual for doctors to start thyroxin replacement in clinically hypothyroid but biochemical euthyroid patients.” They note that of 80 patients who were diagnosed as hypothyroid on established clinical (signs and symptoms), only 5 patients had abnormally low T4 levels and only 4 had abnormal high TSH levels. The averaged TSH concentration was below the middle of the reference range. They state that these people deserve treatment otherwise they are condemned to many years of hypothyroidism with its complications and poor quality of life.
    British Medical Journal
  3. In a published article in the British Medical Journal, the authors state, “For over 80 years, before the advent of TSH testing, physicians with outstanding ability have regularly treated thyroid patients with enough thyroid to clinically normalize their patients regardless of dose. The maxim of the day before TSH arrived was to give enough thyroid until the patient felt better. Medical students are still repeatedly told to treat the patient and not the lab values, but this quickly gets forgotten and disregarded when it comes to thyroid. The 80 years of experience with thyroid hormone treatment demonstrated that people would normally need 200-400 micrograms of T4, such as Synthroid, or 3 to 5 grains of desiccated thyroid. The long-term studies of over 40 years show no side effects from such doses and thyroid is probably the safest long-term drug of the Century. When TSH testing came into use in 1973, the average doses dropped to 1/3 of the doses previously used.”
    British Medical Journal
  4. 4. In a study published in the Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, clinical signs were compared to blood tests. The authors demonstrated that individuals have varying degrees of thyroid resistance in different tissues. The authors describe this as a metabolic hypothyroidism in different tissues. They state “…tissue hypothyroidism at the peripheral target organs must be different in the individual patient.” The authors summarize their findings by stating that they agree with the statement in an endocrinology text book stating, "The ultimate test of whether a patient is experiencing the effects of too much or to little thyroid hormone is not the measurement of hormone concentration in the blood but the effect of thyroid hormones on the peripheral tissues"
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
    Basic and clinical endocrinology, 3rd ed. London: Appleton
  5. Low thyroid is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart enlargement, stroke, infections, and cancer.
    Numerous studies

  6. In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, it was shown that T4 preparations such a Levoxyl and Synthroid resulted in very minimal increase in metabolism while supplementation with T3 was shown to increase metabolism by an average of 18%. For a person consuming a 2000 calorie diet, 18% is equivalent to burning an extra 360 calories per day. Thus giving T3 would equate to approximately a 40 pound weight loss in a year. This is equivalent to approximately jogging on a treadmill for 1 hour per day. If we would simply optimize everyone’s thyroid, we would no longer have the obesity crises in this country. This could easily be remedied and drastically cut he incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and cancer. Thyroid should never be given as a weight loss medication but appropriate replacement with the proper preparations often elevates a number of symptoms, often including continued weight gain.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
  7. Reverse T3 blocks T3 action and lowers metabolism
    Research Experimental Medicine
  8. Thyroid hormones improve blood flow to heart and prevent heart attacks
  9. There is an increased risk of arrhythmias if your T3 levels are low and/or your reverse T3 levels are high. This is opposite of what most doctors think.
    Journal of Cardiology
  10. Flame retardants are building up in people's bodies and blocking the thyroid effect resulting in a diminished thyroid effect despite having normal thyroid levels.
    Toxilogical Sciences
  11. Organochlorine compounds (pesticides) are well known to alter the thyroid hormone system by decreasing serum thyroid hormone levels in several species including humans.
    Environmental Health Perspectives
  12. The higher the level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s) in children the lower the thyroid and the higher the level of cadmium in children the lower the thyroid levels (not picked up on standard blood test)
    Environmental Health Perspectives
  13. “In an ambitious review of the literature from laboratory experiments, wildlife observations and human epidemiology, Françoise Brucker-Davis concludes that wildlife data clearly demonstrate thyroid disruption by synthetic chemicals.”
  14. “Synthetic chemicals are released into the environment by design (pesticides) or as a result of industrial activity. It is well known that natural environmental chemicals can cause goiter or thyroid imbalance. However, the effects of synthetic chemicals on thyroid function have received little attention.”


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